Intracranial hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A possible complication in the natural history of advanced prostate cancer

Authors: Valcamonico F, Arcangeli G, Consoli F, Nonnis D, Grisanti S, Gatti E, Berruti A, Ferrari V.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a variety of intracranial hypertension that is extremely rare in men. Obesity and hypogonadism are the most important predictive factors. Etiological hypotheses include increased central venous pressure, and various hormonal and metabolic changes commonly found in obese patients. We described the case of an obese man with prostate cancer who showed a consistent bodyweight increase during treatment with taxanes and prednisone. He was hospitalized because of a severe loss of vision as a consequence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A complete symptom remission was obtained after 3 weeks of anti-edema therapies (steroids, acetazolamide). Castration-resistant prostate cancer is a risk factor for idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Long-term androgen deprivation therapy, bodyweight increase, and fluid retention during chronic steroid administration and taxane chemotherapy might favor the disease onset. This severe complication has a good outcome, and should be suspected in the presence of symptoms and signs of intracranial hypertension.

Intracranial hypertension presenting with severe visual failure, without concurrent headache, in a child with nephrotic syndrome

Authors: Barnett M, Sinha MD, Morrison D, Lim M.

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a condition typically characterised by headache, normal level of consciousness, papilloedema and raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Children often present with visual loss and atypical features of raised pressure, posing a diagnostic and management challenge. A range of renal disorders can predispose to developing this raised intracranial pressure syndrome. We present a case of severe visual failure in a child with nephrotic syndrome, with no headache when elevated pressure was proven. In nephrotic syndrome, visual failure related to elevated intracranial pressures without concurrent headache symptoms has not been reported previously.

MDCTA diagnosis of cerebral vessel disease among patients with arterial hypertension

Authors: Romanko-Hrushchak N.

BACKGROUND: to study changes involving cerebral vessels in patients with hypertension and various levels of total cardiovascular risk.
MATERIAL/METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four patients underwent CT-angiography of intracranial vessels. Ninety-eight of them were diagnosed with hypertension. Taking into consideration high blood pressure, presence of risk factors and target organ damage subjects were divided into 4 groups: with low, medium, high and very high total cardiovascular risk. Control group included 36 patients. They were not diagnosed with hypertension at the time of examination. One hundred and five patients were examined using a 4-slice CT scanner (Toshiba Asteion 4, Toshiba Medical System, Japan), and 29 patients were examined using a 128-slice scanner (Siemens Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare, Germany) with an injection system. We used iodine-containing contrast agents such as iodixanol and iopromide for angiography.

Effect of mannitol on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in patients with intracranial hypertension

Authors: Tang SC, Lin RJ, Shieh JS, Wu AY, Lai DM, Huang SJ, Jeng JS.

BACKGROUND: Mannitol is commonly used in patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP), but its effect on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity (CVPR) is uncertain. We analyzed the changes of pressure reactivity index (PRx) during the course of mannitol treatment.
METHODS: Twenty-one patients who received mannitol treatment for increased ICP were recruited prospectively. Continuous waveforms of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and ICP were collected simultaneously for 60 minutes (10 minutes at baseline and 50 minutes since mannitol administration) during 37 events of mannitol treatment. The correlation coefficients between the mean ABP and ICP were averaged every 10 minutes and labeled as the PRx. The linear correlation of six time points of PRx in each event was calculated to represent the trend of CVPR changes. The negative slope of correlation was defined as improvement in CVPR under mannitol treatment and vice versa.
RESULTS: At baseline, the average of ICP was 26.0 ± 9.1 mmHg and the values of PRx were significantly correlated with ICP (p = 0.0044, r = 0.46). After mannitol administration, the average of ICP decreased significantly to 21.2 ± 11.1 mmHg (p = 0.036), and CVPR improved in 59.4 % of all events. Further analysis showed that low baseline cerebral perfusion pressure was the only hemodynamic parameter significant association with the improvement of CVPR after mannitol treatment (p = 0.039).
CONCLUSION: Despite lowering ICP, mannitol may have diverse effects on CVPR in patients with intracranial hypertension. Our study suggests that mannitol infusion may have a beneficial effect on CVPR, particularly in those with a low cerebral perfusion pressure at baseline.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension; research progress and emerging themes

Authors: Batra R, Sinclair A.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterised by increased intracranial pressure of unknown cause predominantly seen in obese women of childbearing age and associated with a history of recent weight gain. The aetiology is poorly understood and there are no evidence-based guidelines on the management of the disease. We aim to provide a review of the recent literature outlining the latest advances in this field over the past few years. Areas of emerging interest related to the pathophysiology of IIH will be discussed, such as the role of obesity, adipose tissue and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. We consider the latest research on the role of venous sinus stenosis in IIH and ex vivo advances into cerebrospinal fluid drainage via the arachnoid granulation tissue. The latest techniques for optic nerve head evaluation and the role of optical coherence tomography will be summarised. Finally, we will discuss recent advances in the management of IIH, including weight loss, and medical and surgical treatment strategies.

Pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension and the underlying endocrine-metabolic dysfunction: a pilot study

Authors: Salpietro V, Mankad K, Kinali M, Adams A, Valenzise M, Tortorella G, Gitto E, Polizzi A, Chirico V, Nicita F, David E, Romeo AC, Squeri CA, Savasta S, Marseglia GL, Arrigo T, Johanson CE, Ruggieri M.

Abstract Aim: To unravel the potential idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) endocrine-metabolic comorbidities by studying the natural (and targeted drug-modified) history of disease in children. IIH is a disorder of unclear pathophysiology, characterized by raised intracranial pressure without hydrocephalus or space-occupying lesion coupled with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. Methods: Retrospective study (years 2001-2010) of clinical records and images and prospective follow-up (years 2010-2013) in 15 children (11 girls, 4 boys; aged 5-16 years) diagnosed previously as "IIH", according to the criteria for pediatric IIH proposed by Rangwala, at four university pediatric centers in northern, central, and southern Italy. Results: We identified six potential endocrine-metabolic comorbidities including, weight gain and obesity (n=5), recombinant growth hormone therapy (n=3), obesity and metabolic syndrome (n=1), secondary hyperaldosteronism (n=1), hypervitaminosis A (n=1), and corticosteroid therapy (n=1). Response to etiologically targeted treatments (e.g., spironolactone, octreotide) was documented. Conclusions: IIH is a protean syndrome caused by various potential (risk and) associative factors. Several conditions could influence the pressure regulation of CSF. An endocrine-metabolic altered homeostasis could be suggested in some IIH patients, and in this context, etiologically targeted therapies (spironolactone) should be considered.

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