Intracranial hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension following deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease

Authors: Finet P, Delavallée M, Raftopoulos C.

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome characterized by an increased intracranial pressure of unknown origin arising mainly in overweight females. The typical symptoms of IIH are headaches and papilledema associated with visual disorders, which can often evolve to blindness. We describe the first patient who developed a clinical syndrome related to an IIH following a bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedure for Parkinson's disease with the particularity that the clinical expression of the IIH syndrome was atypical because of the presence of intracerebral electrodes.

Source: PubMed

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015 Jan 28.

Usefulness of intracranial pressure continuous monitoring in pseudotumor cerebri

Authors: Horcajadas Almansa A, Cordero Tous N, Román Cutillas A, Saura Rojas E, Jorques Infante A, Iáñez Velasco B, Sánchez Corral C.

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the usefulness of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in pseudotumor cerebri (PTC).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with suspected PTC, but having incomplete criteria for the syndrome, on whom ICP monitoring was performed. Demographic, clinical and radiological data were collected, as well as ICP monitoring data and related complications. Results were evaluated 6months after surgery.

RESULTS: In relation to demographics, all patients were young females. Mean ICP was less than 250mmH2O in 5 of 8 patients with pathological monitoring. Most patients (62.5%) showed A waves; these were related with higher mean ICP, but not always with papilloedema. All recordings showed high amplitude B waves. Most pathological recordings showed wave amplitudes superior to 5mmHg. There were no complications related to the monitoring technique.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and lumbar opening pressure data are not enough to establish PTC diagnosis correctly, especially if patient has been treated previously. Monitoring using ICP is a valuable, safe tool, and very useful in this syndrome. Mean ICP could be normal even with pathological recordings. Morphological analysis is necessary to establish diagnosis. A and B waves are highly related to shunt response. Wave amplitude is related to brain compliance and to shunt response as well.

Intracranial hypertension associated with obstructive sleep apnea: A discussion of potential etiologic factors

Authors: Wardly DE.

Obstructive sleep apnea has been shown to increase intracranial pressure, and to be a secondary cause of intracranial hypertension. There are a few theories that attempt to explain this relationship, however there is little data, and even less recognition among physicians that this actually occurs. This paper discusses multiple pieces of data, from anatomical correlates to biochemical information involving neuro-excitotoxicity, as well as hematologic factors and issues surrounding brain edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. A complex paradigm for how obstructive sleep apnea may lead to increased intracranial pressure is thus proposed. In addition, suggestions are made for how obstructive sleep apnea must as a result be managed differently in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Rebound Intracranial Hypertension: A Complication of Epidural Blood Patching for Intracranial Hypotension

Authors: Kranz PG, Amrhein TJ, Gray L.

Rebound intracranial hypertension is a complication of epidural blood patching for treatment of intracranial hypotension characterized by increased intracranial pressure, resulting in potentially severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Because the symptoms of rebound intracranial hypertension may bear some similarity to those of intracranial hypotension and literature reports of rebound intracranial hypertension are limited, it may be mistaken for refractory intracranial hypotension, leading to inappropriate management. This clinical report of 9 patients with confirmed rebound intracranial hypertension reviews the clinical characteristics of patients with this condition, emphasizing factors that can be helpful in discriminating rebound intracranial hypertension from refractory spontaneous intracranial hypotension, and discusses treatment.

Spontaneous sphenoid lateral recess cerebrospinal fluid leaks arise from intracranial hypertension, not Sternberg's canal

Authors: Illing E, Schlosser RJ, Palmer JN, Curé J, Fox N, Woodworth BA.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks/encephaloceles are proven to be associated with intracranial hypertension by objective measurements of CSF pressure during or following endoscopic repair. A common area of involvement is a pneumatized lateral recess of the sphenoid (LRS) sinus, where prolonged intracranial pressures lead to arachnoid pits and subsequent development of skull-base defects. Even though the LRS is never present at birth, a "congenital" cause of these leaks due to a persistent Sternberg's (lateral craniopharyngeal) canal continues to be erroneously perpetuated in the literature. The objective of this study was to eliminate the myths defining these leaks as congenital in nature.
METHODS: Evaluation of LRS CSF leaks present within a multiinstitutional case series was performed. Data regarding demographics, body mass index (BMI), radiologic evaluation of intracranial hypertension, and direct intracranial pressure measurements (when available) were collected.
RESULTS: Data evaluation identified 77 LRS CSF leaks in 59 patients (mean age 52 years). Obesity was present in 83% of individuals (mean BMI 36) and 81% were females. Radiologic evidence of intracranial hypertension (eg, empty sella, dilated optic nerve sheaths, and scalloped/attenuated bone) was present on 96% of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Opening or postsurgical lumbar drain or ventriculostomy pressure measurements were elevated in 95% of patients (mean 27.7; range, 9-50 cmH2 O).
CONCLUSION: This study provides objective evidence that LRS CSF leaks are secondary to erosions from intracranial hypertension and refutes the myth regarding a congenital origin from Sternberg's canal.

A case of Bardet-Biedl syndrome complicated with intracranial hypertension in a Japanese child

Authors: Saida K, Inaba Y, Hirano M, Satake W, Toda T, Suzuki Y, Sudo A, Noda S, Hidaka Y, Hirabayashi K, Imai H, Kurokawa T, Koike K.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, truncal obesity, hypogonadism, learning disability, and renal anomaly that are caused by ciliary dysfunction. 16 genes have been associated with the BBS phenotype. Although recent pathophysiological studies using animal models have shown that ciliary dysfunction may induce hydrocephalus, there have been no reports of BBS with intracranial hypertension. We here describe a 9-year-old Japanese girl who was diagnosed as having BBS and later received renal transplantation due to chronic renal failure. She also exhibited intracranial hypertension, including papilledema and increased intrathecal pressure (260-300mmH2O), but her brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. No genetic abnormalities were detected by DNA chip analysis or exome sequencing. Her papilledema improved following administration of acetazolamide. This is the first report of a case of BBS complicated with intracranial hypertension and its treatment.


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