pediatric

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pediatric population: Case series from India

Authors: Roy AG, Vinayan KP, Kumar A.

Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a well described entity in adults. In pediatric age group the presentation of disease can vary depending on the age of patients and is less frequently reported. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features, investigations, treatment and outcome of IIH in pediatric population (age <18 years). Materials and Methods: This retrospective hospital based study was carried out on 25 children with diagnosis of IIH based on modified Dandys criteria. Their clinical, investigation, treatment, outcome and follow-up for 2 year period were analyzed. Results: Out of the 25 children, the youngest child was 4-month-old infant. The commonest symptom was headache (76%) followed by vomiting and papilledema (72%). The mean cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure was 330 mm of H 2 O. In Infants irritability and bulging anterior fontanelle was seen. A total of 24 patients showed a complete resolution of symptom. None of patient had recurrence over a period of 2 years follow-up. Conclusion: IIH can present at any age group. This is the largest series of IIH reported in pediatric population in India. The clinical features are similar to adult patients except in infants. Absence of papilledema does not exclude the diagnosis of IIH. CSF pressure monitoring is needed in suspected cases of IIH. Early and prompt treatment can prevent deficits.

Pediatric traumatic brain injury in 2012: the year with new guidelines and common data elements

Authors: Bell MJ, Kochanek PM.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of death of children in the developing world. In 2012, several international efforts were completed to aid clinicians and researchers in advancing the field of pediatric TBI. The second edition of the Guidelines for the Medical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children and Adolescents updated those published in 2003. This article highlights the processes involved in developing the Guidelines, contrasts the new guidelines with the previous edition, and delineates new research efforts needed to advance knowledge. The impact of common data elements within these potential new research fields is reviewed.

Effects of Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) on Intracranial and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure In Pediatric Neurosurgical Patients

Authors: Pulitanò S, Mancino A, Pietrini D, Piastra M, De Rosa S, Tosi F, De Luca D, Conti G.

BACKGROUND:: Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation by optimizing alveolar recruitment and reducing intrapulmonary shunt. Unfortunately, PEEP can interfere with intracranial pressure (ICP) by increasing intrathoracic pressure. We hypothesized that the use of different PEEP levels could have an effect on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), gas exchange, respiratory system mechanics, and hemodynamics in pediatric patients undergoing major neurosurgical procedures.

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