Decreased risk of acute kidney injury with intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with moderate or severe brain injury

Authors: Zeng J, Tong W, Zheng P.

Object The authors undertook this study to evaluate the effects of continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring-directed mannitol treatment on kidney function in patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods One hundred sixty-eight patients with TBI were prospectively assigned to an ICP monitoring group or a conventional treatment control group based on the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines. Clinical data included the dynamic changes of patients' blood concentrations of cystatin C, creatinine (Cr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN); mannitol use; and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Results There were no statistically significant differences with respect to hospitalized injury, age, or sex distribution between the 2 groups. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was higher in the control group than in the ICP monitoring group (p < 0.05). The mean mannitol dosage in the ICP monitoring group (443 ± 133 g) was significantly lower than in the control group (820 ± 412 g) (p < 0.01), and the period of mannitol use in the ICP monitoring group (3 ± 3.8 days) was significantly shorter than in the control group (7 ± 2.3 days) (p < 0.01). The 6-month GOS scores in the ICP monitoring group were significantly better than in the control group (p < 0.05). On the 7th, 14th, and 21st days after injury, the plasma cystatin C and Cr concentrations in the ICP-monitoring group were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions In patients with moderate and severe TBI, ICP-directed mannitol treatment demonstrated a beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of AKI compared with treatment directed by neurological signs and physiological indicators.

Full text and source: Journal of Neurosurgery

J Neurosurg. 2013 Aug 2.